Glossary Of Terms Relating To
The Original Thirteenth Article of Amendment
To The Constitution For The United States

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a) Anything, especially money, given or promised to induce a person to do something illegal or wrong; b) Anything given or promised to induce a person to do something against his wishes. Also (vt) To get or influence by bribing.

Emolument - n [ME, fr. L emolumentum, lit., miller's fee, fr emolere: to grind up] Gain, licit or illicit, from employment or position, payment received for services rendered or to be rendered. Profits arising from occupation, service, or position such as wages, advantages, fees, etc.

a) The act of taking advantage of one's position to gain money, property, etc. dishonestly, as in politics; b) anything acquired by such illegal methods, as an illicit profit from government business.

High rank or distinction of superiority to be treated with deference or obeisance. From Webster's Dictionary, the archaic definition of "honor" (as used when the 13th Amendment was ratified) meant anyone "obtaining or having an advantage or privilege over another."

A contemporary example of an "honor" granted to only a few Americans is the privilege of being a judge: Lawyers can be judges and exercise the attendant privileges and powers; non-lawyers cannot.

By prohibiting "honors", the 13th Amendment prohibits any advantage or privilege that would grant some citizens or corporations (legal fictions having the status of Person) an unequal opportunity to achieve or exercise political power. Therefore, the second meaning (intent) of the 13th Amendment was to ensure political equality among all American citizens, by prohibiting anyone, even government officials, from claiming or exercising a special privilege or power (an "honor") over other citizens.

Therefore, "honor" is a key concept in the 13th Amendment. While "titles of nobility" may no longer apply in today's political system, the concept of "honor" remains relevant. For example, anyone who had a specific "immunity" from lawsuits which were not afforded to all citizens, would be enjoying a separate privilege, an "honor". Think of the "immunities" from lawsuits that our judges, lawyers, politicians, and bureaucrats currently enjoy. As another example, think of all the "special interest" legislation our government passes: "special interests" are simply euphemisms for "special privileges," i.e., honors.

Power - a sovereign state; a controlling group; possession or control; authority or influence, political or otherwise.

Lobbying groups and multi-national corporations might properly be termed "foreign powers".

[Artificial] high station of rank or privilege in society, especially when accompanied by a title.

"These had anciently duties annexed to their respective honors. They are created either by writ, i.e., by royal summons to attend the house of peers, or by letters patent, i.e., by royal grant of any dignity and degree of peerage; and they enjoy many privileges, exclusive of their senatorial capacity." 1 Blackstone's Commentaries 396.

"TITLE OF NOBILITY" is defined in relevant part as follows: "The qualities which constitute distinction of rank in civil society, according to the customs or laws of the country; that eminence or dignity which a man derives from birth or title conferred, and which places him in an order above common men. In Great Britain, nobility is extended to five ranks, those of duke, marquis, earl, viscount and baron." Webster's American Dictionary of 1828

From a court case, in Horst v. Moses, 48 Ala. 123, 142 (1872), which gave the following description of "Titles of Nobility":

"to confer a title of nobility, is to nominate to an order of persons to whom privileges are granted at the expense of the rest of the people. It is not necessarily hereditary, and the objection to it arises more from the privileges supposed to be attached, than to the otherwise empty title or order. These components are forbidden separately in the terms "privilege", "honor", and "emoluments", as they are collectively in the term "title of nobility". The prohibition is not affected by any consideration paid or rendered for the grant."

Pretermit (Pre`ter*mit") v. t. [imp. & p. p. Pretermitted; p. pr. & vb. n. Pretermitting.] [L. praetermittere, praetermissum; praeter beyond + mittere to send.]
:To pass by; to omit; to disregard. Bacon.
:to let pass without mention or notice. Webster's Law Dictionary

An appellation given to a person as a sign of privilege. An [artificial] claim of right.

RATIFY, Ratified, Ratifying
esp: to adopt or affirm (as the prior act or contract of an agent) by express or implied consent with the effect of original authorization -- Merriam-Webster's Dictionary of Law (c)1996

Ratify \Rat"i*fy\, v. t. [imp. & p. p. Ratified; p. pr. & vb. n. Ratifying.] [F. ratifier, fr. L. ratus fixed by calculation, firm, valid + -ficare (in comp.) to make. ... To approve and sanction; to make valid; to establish; to settle; especially, to give sanction to, as something done by an agent or servant; as, to ratify an agreement, treaty, or contract; to ratify a nomination.

It is impossible for the divine power to set a seal to a lie by ratifying an imposture with such a miracle. South. -- Webster's Revised Unabridged Dictionary, (c) 1996, 1998 MICRA, Inc.

Confirmation and acceptance of a previous act, thereby making the act valid from the moment it was done. -- Black's Law Dictionary. 7th Edition (c) 1999

n : making something valid by formally ratifying or confirming it; "the ratification of the treaty"; "confirmation of the appointment" [syn: confirmation] -- WordNet (r) 1.6, (c) 1997. Princeton University

America (American Patriotic Medley)

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